One of the key duties of the human resource management department is training and development. Employees are trained and taught technical knowledge related to their duties in a systematic manner during training. It focuses on educating employees on how to use certain machines or do specific jobs in order to boost productivity. In this post, we will discuss the 15 most effective methods of Training and Development.
Development, on the other hand, refers to those in managerial positions' total holistic and educational progress and maturity. Understanding, attitudes, flexibility, leadership, and human relationships are all part of the development process.
The importance of training and development has never been greater than it is now, in a time of great diversity of talents and sophisticated technologies. Skills are declining, and businesses are feeling down. This is probably why businesses have now devoted all their attention to regular staff training, investing up to $ 87.6 billion by 2018.
However, only 34% of these businesses believe that training is helpful. As the industry evolves, it's more important than ever for Training and Development professionals to understand how to make their programs as effective as possible. The first step is to select methods of training and development for appropriate employees.
Different Methods of Training and Development
1. Classroom Lecture Method:
This is the most widely utilized, straightforward, cost-effective, and traditional way. It saves time since it reaches the greatest number of individuals in the shortest amount of time. It consists of the instructor giving a speech with relatively no discussion. Methods of Training and Development and presentation that is clear and direct. The method's flaws include that the lecture lasts longer than the average human attention span of 15 minutes, and the presentation's contents are readily forgotten. The level of take-home learning is unknown because the method does not allow for active participation on the part of the learners. Furthermore, a lecture may be beneficial only if the presentation is done well. While lectures are effective at disseminating knowledge, they have not proved very effective at changing human behavior or instilling commitments in the minds of the audience. The lecture-cum-demonstration method is an adaptation of this method in which the presenter emphasizes a skill or piece of information by demonstrating it in action.
2. Group Discussion Method:
It is a way for developing trainees' knowledge and attitudes. Image sets of people evaluate various empirical studies for commonalities in order to discover the underlying general principles in this strategy. They then combine their ideas and concentrate their efforts on a single subject at a time, speaking from a variety of perspectives inside the group. In this system, an instructor is optional, but a leader is required. The method's multiple advantages include the ability to create more ideas from each session. Furthermore, each member has the option to submit his or her own ideas and receive comments from other members of the group. Peer pressure and group commitments help to guarantee that decisions made in the group are followed. As a precaution, attention must be made to ensure that all members participate and that a few members do not dominate the proceedings or predetermine the route of discussion.
3. Simulation Exercises Method:
Simulators are a variety of training gadgets that simulate the real world in increasing degrees of complexity. They range in complexity from simple paper mock-ups of mechanical devices to computer-generated entire settings. In fact, some believe that case studies, role-playing, and a variety of other methodologies can all be classified as simulations. The benefit of simulation approaches is that they increase the possibility of learning without causing damage to equipment or human life or exposing participants to the numerous risks associated with actual performance. Most traffic regulations, signals, and procedures for driving, for example, might be taught in a park that replicates the main road or through a computer game including vehicle or two-wheeler driving. More complicated simulators are used to teach piloting planes. The approaches are indirect, but they could be costly. The method necessitates a particular level of understanding, information processing, and learning transfer on the part of the trainees.
4. Role-playing Method:
The role partners define the role, which is a set of expectations centered on a certain job. Trainer-trainee, buyer-seller, interviewer-interviewee, and so on are all reciprocal roles that are characterized in pairs. Inter-role conflicts, intra-role issues, role overloads, and role under loads are all problems that come with playing roles. Role confusion arises as a result of these roadblocks. Trainees must get role clarity in order to be trained to perform roles. This may entail negotiations between role senders and role receivers on their expectations of one another, as well as counter-expectations. In the role-playing method, participants are forced to respond to specific challenges and expectations of individuals that they may experience in their work. Interviewing, bargaining, grievance handling, performance review, buying and selling, and effective communication are among skills that are frequently taught through role-playing. It encourages people to develop good interpersonal skills.
5. Case Study Method:
It is a written, narrative depiction of an actual circumstance or incident involving an organization and its business, illustrating any challenge that participants may confront in their work. Participants are expected to come up with as many valid answers or decisions as they can that meet the circumstances in the case. For the participants, a case study might pique their attention and stimulate their thinking. It aids in the development of the participants' analytical, thinking, and problem-solving abilities. The case study method allows for a full grasp of reality since it demonstrates and closes gaps in incomprehension. It also aids in reinforcing messages delivered through lectures, group discussions, and other means. The method's downside may be the difficulty in creating an adequate number of motivating instances that accurately mirror the trainees' real-life situations.
6. Sensitivity Training, T Group Training, or Laboratory Training Method:
It's a series of experiences in unstructured, agenda-free groups aimed at increasing people's awareness of themselves (self-insight), their immediate environment, and their impact on others. T-groups, unlike many other programs, is concerned with the real problems that occur within the group. People are encouraged to communicate freely and actively in order to become more sensitive to others' sensitivities and to work more effectively and responsibly together. Members are competent to identify human interaction difficulties and recognize group dynamics. Participants are encouraged to share their thoughts and feelings with one another in a more open, unstructured, friendly, and honest way than is normal in a business or social setting. Participants discover improved ways of behaving for good interpersonal connections without the use of power or authority over others as a positive outcome of the strategy. People may resent negative input and respond with rage if the strategy is used incorrectly. People must first be well equipped to take constructive criticism in order to effectively manage conflicts.
7. Management Games Method:
Games are employed more as a training tool than as a form of entertainment. Trainees are separated into teams and given common tasks on which they will compete to reach decisions, as well as collaboratively implementing and assessing the game-related decisions. Every team, for example, would be given blocks of wood and one of the members would be blindfolded with a piece of fabric. The participant would have to stack the blocks one on top of the other, following the other members' directions and guidance. The incentives would grow exponentially as they progressed toward larger goal heights. While playing the game, this game is utilized to bring out the nuances of teamwork, leadership styles, and communication patterns displayed by the members. The method's drawbacks include the fact that games can often lead to a lack of seriousness in some trainees, as well as the fact that learning is indirect and sluggish. However, it aids in the delivery of messages in a non-threatening and entertaining manner.
8. Outward Bound Training (OBT) Method:
Managers and other staff members participate in OBT by meeting and cohabiting as a team in an unknown wilderness, away from the workplace and the hustle and bustle of daily life, where they would stay in cabins or tents for a set number of days. They put their survival abilities to the test while also learning about themselves and their hidden potential for creativity, cooperation, and leadership. Participants are given the opportunity to learn about their own limitations and potential. Participants, regardless of their official position or seniority, would have to learn to be more natural in their behavior and shed their professional masks. It is a costly process, and the knowledge gained may not be transferable to other people or situations.
9. IBT (In-Bag Training) Method:
IBT is a training approach in which the learner examines a basket full of papers and files related to his field of work and makes recommendations on issues found within. This strategy is intended for managerial trainees who want to improve their decision-making and problem-solving skills. This is a type of simulation training that is based on real-world business situations and so transportable to the workplace. Typically, the participant is required to set priorities for and then handle a variety of office papers, such as memoranda, reports, phone messages, and emails that would normally pass through a manager's desk. There are at least two stages to the method. The participant begins by working through the case on his own for a fixed amount of time, without discussing the information with anyone. The issues of who, which, how, what, where, why, and when of each choice or step are then analyzed and discussed by the other participants. The advantages of this method include combining the best of traditional case studies with modifications to allow for greater flexibility, realism, and involvement. The emphasis here is on thoroughly understanding things, which is an opportunity that comes around far too seldom during busy working days. It is carried out in a relaxed environment that encourages experimentation and learning, rather than in the confines of a boss-subordinate relationship.
10. Vestibule Training Method:
This type of training takes place away from the production area, on equipment that is quite similar to the ones used on the job. It's a form of off-the-job training in which individuals receive instruction in a realistic employment setting but in a location other than where they'll be working. A group of lathes, for example, could be housed in a training facility where trainees will be taught how to use them. The method is commonly used to train typists and bank tellers, among other things. The term 'vestibule' refers to an entrance. As a result, vestibule training aids in full-fledged job entry. Vestibule training has a number of advantages, one of which is that it relieves the employee of the strain of having to perform while learning. Production or supervisory disruption is minimized during training. The downsides include the additional investment in equipment and the need for more trainers.
11. Apprenticeship Training Method:
It incorporates both classroom and on-the-job training. An apprenticeship is a training approach in which learners at a beginner level, known as 'apprentices,' work under the supervision of a skilled, certified instructor and are paid less than workers. The strategy combines education and employment and is designed to prepare workers with specific levels of certification to fulfill the industry's rising needs. Special skills such as mechanical, electronic, and tailoring are developed using this method. Apprenticeships have long been utilized in skilled trades such as plumbing, carpentry, machining, and printing. The thorough breadth of the training ensures high-quality outcomes, despite the lengthy time commitment. Employees hired under the apprenticeship program are expected to hit the ground running, which means they must begin performing at a high level right away. Slow learners, on the other hand, are unable to acquire the same levels of mastery as others due to the standard period of apprenticeship training.
12. Work Shadowing Method:
When preparing a second-line leader to take on the post of the head, this training method is used because the candidate would not benefit from attending any other formal training program. Direct participant observation of critical moments in the current incumbent's work-life would be the greatest way to be trained for a future executive role. The trainees are forced to stay in the company of the role model whose work they are supposed to learn. By physically being in the presence of the job-holder, trainees learn the subtleties of a high-level profession. Following the model's working styles allows for a higher level of learning while also assisting the trainee in imbibing the model's ideals and principles. However, caution must be exercised to avoid circumstances in which trainees are not warmly welcomed and are perceived by department supervisors as a disruption to their daily routines.
13. Programmed Instruction Method (PIM):
PIM delivers instruction without the need for an instructor to be there. Instructions are written in such a way that all future learning is contingent on the acquisition and retention of past information in order to ensure a sequential approach to learning. Information is split down into small chunks called 'frames' using this process. The student reads each frame in order and answers questions meant to test their understanding. The learners receive quick feedback on their response accuracy based on their responses. If the students have correctly answered all of the questions, they go on to the next frame. If not, the frame is repeated. Immediate reinforcement and the freedom for learners to progress at their own pace are two key elements of this technique. Programmed instructions can be displayed on a computer or in a book.
14. Large Scale Interactive Events (LSIE) Method:
When compared to other ways, the method has a number of distinct advantages. To begin, this method emphasizes the sharing of expertise by all participants, as opposed to other methods of training and development in which the instructor supplies the majority of the inputs and may even regard trainees as ignorant or unskilled in the topic being covered. LSIE is based on the belief that all participants, by virtue of having been in their job for a certain amount of time, have some level of expertise that should be shared and combined with that of others.
The second benefit is that this method overcomes the limitation of other methods of training and development in terms of the number of people who can be trained per batch. The main advantage of this method is that it can train a group of 300 – 400 people at the same time without sacrificing the effectiveness of other methods of training and development. The use of group processes is the third advantage. While the trainer's role is limited to a brief but inspiring presentation to stimulate participant thinking, the methods of training and development allow for active participation of all participants who are assigned various roles such as sub-group leader, recorder, summarizer, presenter, and so on. A fourth advantage of the LSIE is that the organization places a strong emphasis on extensive on-the-spot documentation of people's points of view. Finally, the method culminates in the large group as a whole addressing the common issues. Priorities are set on areas of intervention at this stage, and a plan of action is drawn and accepted based on voting by members, thereby building commitment among all participants to implement the agreed-upon plans. One disadvantage of the method is that it may necessitate a large number of volunteers to assist with the proceedings.
15. Personal Coaching Method:
It is an on-the-job approach in which a manager has the opportunity to teach an employee, typically his direct subordinate, one-on-one. Coaching is the process of assisting oneself and others in gaining new perspectives on their intentions and behaviors, as well as understanding what is possible and how to access inner resources such as motivation, commitment, passion, and so on. As a coach, the manager gently confronts employees with their flaws and suggests corrective actions. The supervisor is also on the lookout for ways to encourage good performance. Coaching is widely regarded as one of the most effective methods of training and development. Constant supervision causes the trainee to learn quickly.